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The first inquiry related to the foundation of those rights. " Our ancestors," he sjiid, "found here no government, and, as a con- sequence, had a right to make their own. " A right of regulating trade," said Gadsden, true to the principle of 1765, " is a right of legisla- tion, and a right of legislation in one case is a right in all." Amid varying opinions and theories, the congress, in- creased to twelve cobi'ies by delegates from North Carolina and intent upon seciring absolute unanimity, moved with great deliberation ; so that Galloway hoped " the two parties would remain on an equal balance." But in that body there was a man who knew how to bring the enthusiasm of tlu peo- ple into connection with its representatives.Charters are an unsafe reliance, for the king's righi to grant them hat. Beside., the right to life and the right to liberty are inalienable." Jay of New York likewise recurred to the laws of nature ; and enumerated among natural rights the i-io-ht to emigrate, and the right of the emigrants to erect what ^ov- emment they pleased. •' Samuel Adams," wrote Galloway, " though by no means remarkable for brilliant abilities, is equal to most men in popular intrigue and the management of a faction.adopt will only follow their reasonableness, apparent «t 11^ and necessity. Ou T Z strtucntsaro bound only in honor to observe our dctermlna- said Gadsden, "ivory colony," hisisted Ward of Rhode Isl- and, 'should have an equal vote. The measure of arbitrary power is not full, and '.c must run over before wo undertake to fj-anie a new constitu- tion." It was next voted that '• the doors be kept shut during the time of business;" and the members bound themselves by their honor to keep the proceedings secret until the majority should direct them to be made public.The counties of Virginia are unequal m point of wealth and number., yet each ht a light to send two memhera to its legislature. The treacherous Gallo- way pledged his honor with the rest.Lay hand upon the shield and buckler, and stand up to help mc.Ering f ortli the spear, and stop the way against them that persecute me.^ The congress that day appointed one committee on the rights of the colonies, and another on the British statutes affect- ing their manufactures and trade.
The body named itself " tho congrcgs," and its cliair- inan "the president." Jay and JDiiano would have selected a secretary from among themselves ; but, on the motion of Lyncii, Charles Thomson Wiis appointed.
John Eutledge, on the cortraiy, held that allegiance is inalienable; that the first emigrants had not had the nght to elect then- king; that American claims were derived from the British constitution rather than from the law of nature. lie eats little, drinks little, sleeps little, and thinks much, and is most decisive and indefatigable in the pursuit of his objects.
But Shemian of Connecticut deduced allegiance from consent, without which the colonies were not bound by the act of settlement. lie was the man w Jio, by his superior application, managed at once the faction in congress at Philadolphia and the factions in New England." On the seventeenth of Septen^ber, the delegates of Massa- chusetts laid l)efore congress the address of tlie Suffolk county convention to Gage, on his seizure of the provhice's stock of powder and his hostile occupation of Hie only approach to Bos- ton by land ; and the resoiutions of the same convention, which declared t]iat no obedience was due to the acts of pai'Iiament affecting their colony.
From returns which were but in part accessible to the congress, it appears that the immber of white inhabi- tants in all the thirteen colonies was, in 1774, about two mill- ions one hundred thousand; of blacks, about five hundred thousand ; the total population, very nearly two millions six hundred thousand. Making a recital of the wrongs inflicted on tho colonies by acts of parliament, he declared that all government was dis- solved ; that an entire new one must be founded ; that the con- gress then assembled was but the first in a never-ending suc- cession ; that their present decision wonld form a precedent. ,.a,.h eolony its just weight.^ Tho de n" crafeal part ox ,.
^ onstitution, ho insisted, must bo Tr^ served m its •• ..,.
a„7]Z' crty,"sa,d Lynch, "should determine tho weight of the X mes; but he admitted that such a rule co,dd not then bo settled. ill 11 are unprepared with materials to settle that equality." Bland of Yirginia saw no safety but in voting by colonies. It was resolved that, in taking questions, each colony should have one voice ; but the journal adds as the reason, that " the congress was not then able to procure proper materials for ascertaining the importance of each colony." Dunng the debate.